中文English
current position:Home > EducationFaults

Faults

Sources:    Time:2013-06-14

      When the powerful stress or strain due to crustal movement exceeds the threshold of the crustal strata, the strata will fracture. Such staggered structure along the fracture is called fault. The staggered fracture surface is called fault plane, and the rocks of relative motion on either its side are called fault wall. The hanging wall occurs above the fault and the footwall occurs below the fault. The fault with the hanging wall moving down and the footwall moving up is normal fault. A reverse fault is the opposite of a normal fault — the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall. A fault plane with relatively horizontal motion of both hanging wall and footwall is called strike-slip fault.

      The scale of faults ranges from several centimeters to hundreds and thousands of meters. In terms of the landform, the uplifted rocks on the side of fault normally become mountain ranges or highland, such as Huashan Mountain, Lushan Mountain and Mount Tai of China. The rocks that dip down along the fault often become valleys or lowland, such as Weihe Plain and Fenhe Valley of China. Valleys or rivers are often formed along the fault structure belt due to the weathering and erosion of fragmented rocks.